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Hydrodynamics: Photos of isolated wells from various types of microtiter plates during orbital shaking at 300 rpm, showing the large effect of the shaking diameter ("throw") on the degree of mixing, especially for the smaller cultures.
Oxygen transfer rates, headspace gas exchange rates, and evaporation rates as a result of various orbital shaking conditions and working volumes for 4 different types of microtiter plates in combination with our sandwich covers.
a)        Duetz et al. (2004) Biochemical Engineering Journal 17: 181-185 (data determined enzymatically using glucose oxidase, horse radish peroxidase, and ABTS) b)        OTR's extrapolated from reference a) c)        OTR extrapolated from other data for round vessels (in which surface tension does not play a role). d)        Duetz et al. (2000) Appl Environ Microb 66:2641-2646. (data derived  from growth curve Pseudomonas putida) e)        OTR determined at the Enzyscreen lab from growth curves Pseudomonas putida: procedure as detailed in Duetz et al., Appl Environ Microb 66:2641-2646. f)         OTR extrapolated from data from e), applying a conversion factor of 0.5 (two-fold lower oxygen transfer rates at a shaking amplitude of 25 mm instead of 50   mm) g)        using the standard sandwich covers supplied. VVM = culture volume per minute